Analysing Metabolic Pathways

Analysing Metabolic Pathways

Aspects involved:
Biochemistry i.e. details of a biochemical reaction. The reactions occurring in the chain form a network of pathways.

A ➡️ B➡️ C➡️ D

Gene regulation can be direct or indirect (another molecule activates it like modifying group etc). If the coding gene of that enzyme is in a proper state with no lethal mutation only then it can regulate the function. On some proteins, many enzymes act to produce different modifications resulting in different functions. Thus, a regulatory network forms. There are different types of network:
  • Protein Interaction Networks
  • Gene Transcription Networks
In gene transcription networks one gene being transcribed regulates transcription of another gene. For example, transcription factors are involved in the process of transcription and are formed as a result of some transcription.

If these are formed correctly then others will form correctly as well. Thus a transcription network forms. These started after micro-array technology was introduced.

Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs) play an important role in keeping the body in regular condition. Such networking becomes important whose expression data from microarrays were obtained. Data is simply a signal of various dyes, Fluorescent spots, Gene upregulation & gene downregulation. Normal and diseased gene sets are compared on the basis of expression. Thus, this necessity development to see that which genes are associated with the expression of another gene i.e whole regulatory transcription networks.

Transcription factors initiate the process of transcription & play a vital role. If there is no initiation then there will be no process. If there are not some factors then the process may still proceed even at a low rate but some things are of prime importance like transcription factors which if do not present then no process will occur.

GRNs works simple on the principle of ON & OFF. If the inducing element is present in culture medium then operon will switch on. Some are for repression. A biological switch. Similarly, in the case of eukaryotes & higher organisms in the case of whole gene regulatory network by repression of one gene whole process will get repressed. Such a gene is designated by nature.
In upregulation, all required genes and their expression products are upregulated. The reverse is in downregulation.

A gene regularly transcribing is regulating the exhibition of a function but the gene is switched off then it is not completely off.

There is a basal level of occurring always. In protein assays, a specific amount of protein is required to make it react with the substrate. Similarly, every protein invivo has a half-life of the number o molecules synthesized per second/molecule. Till half-life, there will be some molecules available to perform the function if sufficient molecules were formed. If already the number of protein molecules formed were less then none will be available. Hence, if the level of expression is up to a certain level only then the protein can be seen.

GeneNet is a system designed for observing details of the gene networks. Artificial gene networks have also been formed.

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